The study used monitoring data from 30 European countries (EU and EEA) by 2015 and researchers looked at 16 different combinations of bacteria and antibiotic resistance. This includes bacteria that are considered common causes of infections in the hospital and which are directly resistant to antibiotic groups considered critical to human medicine.
"The biggest burden of illness is calculated for southern European countries, while Norway and other Scandinavian countries are better. The victory explores Petter Elstrøm at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health who participated in the study.
The disease that prevents their resistant bacteria has increased the levels of significance in the last eight years and the greatest is added between the infections caused by resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. 75 percent of the burden of disease can be associated with hospital infections and 39 percent obese gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to last-line antibiotics such as carbapenem and colistin. This leads to the fact that there are little or no effective antibiotics that can be used against infections caused by these bacteria.
Overall, it is estimated that almost 1 900 people in Norway a quarter of a year receive infection by the resistant bacteria included in the study. This causes about 69 additional deaths due to bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Elstrøm points out that the calculations in the study are satisfactory with the good monitoring data we have in Norway.
– A resistant bacterium with good monitoring data in Norway is resistant to Meticillin Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In the study, it is estimated that 17 individuals in one quarter of the year are receiving blood transfusions with MRSA. In the Norwegian Infectious Disease Tracking System (MSIS), for the year 2015, 11 individuals with such MRSA infections have been registered. Since the cause of the infections is not always found, I would like to say that the results of the study correspond to our surveillance data in Norway for both MRSA infections and other MSIS-resistant bacterial infections, "says Elstrøm.
For the first time, antibiotic-resistant bacterial disease burden is also measured in DALY (intervals adjusted for life). DALY is a target for the weight of the cough that has been lost for many years as a result of reduced health, functional capacity and premature death. DALY is often used to compare the burden of various diseases or to compare the burden between countries and different groups of the population. DALY can and can calculate the cost of the disease burden. Such cost analyzes are done in a standardized way to compare the costs associated with different situations.
– The study estimates that the burden of resistant bacteria is about 1,700 DALY in Norway. Turned into crowns and ears, the burden of resistant bacteria causes them an annual cost to the society of about 2 billion Norwegian kronor, "Elstrøm said.
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has used the results of this study to make more accurate calculations of the economic burden associated with resistant bacteria. This is published in a separate OECD report highlighting the excessive tide, which is public on 7 November this year.
Even if the burden of the disease is important and growing in Europe, it is still possible to make it soft to reverse growth.
– The most important choices we can make in Norway and around the world are to reduce the consumption of antibiotics. In addition, we must ensure that good infection measures prevent the spread of resistant bacteria and contribute to the research and development of new types of antibiotics, says Elstrøm.
Deaths and years of life adapted to disability caused by infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the EU and the European Economic Area in 2015: a modeling analysis at the population level (The Lancet)
Measurable deaths and life years of rehabilitation caused by infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the European Union and the European Economic Area in 2015: a population-based health assessment (ECDC)
Infections associated with health services, antibiotics (NOIS), antibiotic resistance (MSIS) and World Health Day. Annual report 2017. (Norwegian Institute for Public Health)
European Antibiotic Awareness Day (ECDC)