As the world marks Diabetes Day on Wednesday, readers were asked to eat healthily, consuming more fresh fruit and vegetables.
You should also try to avoid / reduce fatty foods and exercise for at least 30 minutes a day. Submitting regular health check is another important factor.
Doctors describe diabetes as a chronic, non-communicable disease in which there is a persistent increase in blood sugar, hyperglycemia. Diabetes occurs either when the pancreas, an organ in the body, does not produce enough insulin, leading to type 1 diabetes or when the body can not effectively use insulin, leading to type 2 diabetes.
Dr. Modupe Akinyinka, senior medical consultant and public health consultant at the Department of Community Health and Primary Care, University of Lagos Medical College (LASUCOM), described insulin as a hormone regulating blood sugar.
"Hyperglycemia or increased blood sugar is a common effect of uncontrolled diabetes, which over time leads to severe damage to many of the body's systems, especially the nerves and blood vessels," he said.
Akinyinka explained that the government can help prevent diabetes by encouraging people to eat healthily and exercise through public health campaigns by providing a favorable environment such as side walks and bicycle paths so that people can exercise more by increasing taxes in tobacco and imposing "do not smoke in public" laws.
He said: "The causes of type 1 diabetes are not clear, but the risk factors for type 2 include excessive body weight, obesity and physical inertia, lack of exercise.
Symptoms of diabetes include excessive urinary excretion (polyuria, thirst, polydipsia, constant hunger, weight loss, changes in vision and fatigue.
Type 1 diabetes is more common in younger adults, whereas type 2, which is common in adults, becomes commonplace among young people due to lifestyle. Women may have more risk factors, such as obese, but the prevalence of diabetes in both sexes varies in different populations.
Prevention of diabetes involves achieving and maintaining healthy body weight. Further activities are required to control weight. People should also avoid intake of sugar and saturated fats, as well as the use of tobacco. Smoking increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
The family doctor consultant, Dr. Chukwuma Ogunbor, explained that diabetes mellitus can be classified into four main groups, based on the cause.
He said: "For example, Type 1 diabetes is due to the body's immune system, which usually protects the body from lesions, attacks the pancreas, the insulin-producing organ, leading to absolute insulin deficiency, and adequate glucose utilization is usually observed in children, adolescents and young adults and has a strong genetic predisposition, accounting for about 10% of patients with diabetes mellitus.
"The second group is type 2 diabetes. It is a disorder deeply affected by the way of life of many members of modern societies, so much that it has reached epidemic proportions.
"It requires a condition known as insulin resistance, reduced insulin action, which means that available insulin does not function adequately to purify blood glucose and accounts for 90% of diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes mellitus may be due to pancreatic diseases such as pancreatitis, pancreatic bladder and tumors. It can also be caused by drugs such as antihypertensives, beta-blockers, thiazides, steroids, anticonvulsant vitamin, immunosuppressants, agents and antipsychotics.
"The third group is pregnancy diabetes mellitus, which develops during pregnancy. Like other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes affects how cells use sugar glucose. Gestational diabetes causes high blood sugar that can affect pregnancy and baby health.
"However, it can be controlled by eating healthy foods, exercising and, if necessary, taking medication prescribed by your doctor. Controlling your blood sugar can prevent a difficult birth and keep you healthy both the patient and the baby.
"Blood sugar usually returns to normal soon after delivery. If a patient has a history of gestational diabetes, they are at risk of type 2 diabetes.
"The fourth group is uncontrolled blood sugar in affected people, which can cause heart disease, heart attack, kidney disease, vision problems, erectile dysfunction, tingling and numbness at the extremities, stroke and predisposition to developing infections and sores of the feet, or progress to the point where amputation can be taken into account. "